Modern Footwear Making Process

Figure 1: -  basic steps in construction of footwear

There are many ways to attach the sole to the upper but commercially only a few methods are preferred.

Shoes were traditionally made by molding leather to a wooden last. Modern technology has introduced many new materials and mechanized much of the manufacture. Remarkable as it may seem the manufacture of shoes remains fairly labor intensive. No matter the type of construction the first stage in construction is to attach the insole to the under-surface of the last. Then two main operations follow: Lasting operation (the upper sections are shaped to the last and insole). the second is bottoming, where the sole is attached to the upper.

Shoe making activity passes through different operation. The flow chart below shows the basic steps in construction of shoe in the order in which they are carried out in the shoe factory and also the details of sequences of flow of activities in each department in construction of shoe.


Core processes in manufacturing

Cutting is also known as “clicking”, involves trimming and shaping leather or fabric sections for the upper, marking sections to indicate where to put stitches and working around flaws in the raw material that may spoil the finished appearance.
Clicking is carried out to cut different components of footwear as per the approved design or size. 

While clicking, it is essential to click the right component from the right area of the leather. Defective portion of leather should be carefully clicked so that the defective portion does not spoil the appearance of the finished product. Lining material is also clicked in this section. 

Clicking can be carried out mechanically using clicking press and also manually using clicking knives. It is the most important process in garment manufacturing. This is a very skilled job because leather is expensive hence waste must be kept to a minimum.
Figure 3: - Clicking room in an organization whereas right side is hand cutting
After cutting, certain additional activities may be undertaken. These include skiving (reducing the thickness of a certain edge of leather with the help of skiving machine/skiving knife to allow seems to be produced without the bulkiness), punching and eyeleting either by machine or by hand tools and perforating (to give the finished article a pleasing look as well as cover certain defects).

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